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> Modes 101, Part 2 - The Theory
Andrew Cockburn
post Apr 6 2007, 10:43 PM
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Modes - The Theory


Introduction

In the previous modes lesson we described what modes are, and a practical way of diving into them. However, modes are a complex subject, and the theoretical underpinnings are fascinating. Once you thoroughly understand the previous lesson, spending some time here can really help you with concepts all across music. So now we know what modes are, lets see what they mean in theory terms and how they were generated in the first place.

How Do We Generate Modes?

We're going to start out by listing all of the modes of the Major scale, along with their formulae - look closely, there may be questions ...

Attached Image


I have also included a column called "scale degree" - this will become clear soon.

The first thing I hope you spotted was that the Ionian mode has an identical formula to the Major scale. (See, I told you you were already using modes!). Yes, that's right, the Ionian mode is another name for the Major scale.

Next, although we haven't had a lesson on minor scales yet, you may have spotted that the Aeolian mode has the same formula as the Natural minor scale ... yes, that's right, you already know the Aeolian mode because it is identical to the Natural minor scale! So we've learnt 2 modes already without trying.

Interesting though that is, the real lesson here is that there is a pattern in each of the successive modes (I have listed them in this order deliberately). With a little more examination you will see that for each successive mode's formula, we take off the first letter, move the rest of the letters along and put the first letter on the end.

This gives us a practical way to generate the modes of a scale, based on a techniques of moving through the notes of a scale. The rule is this:

Pick a major scale. To generate each mode, you move through the notes of the scale, up to the degree listed above for that mode, then play through the scale, starting on that note, but playing notes from the original scale. What this does is two things. First, it shifts the root note from the Major scale root note, to the note that is the degree of the scale to which we have moved. Secondly, since we are starting some of the way through the scale it also shifts the spacing of tones and semi-tones (T & S) into a different relationship, as reflected by the formulae for each mode that I gave you above.

That's a bit of a mouthful, so lets look at an example - the modes of the C Major scale. Notes in C major are C,D,E,F,G,A,B,C - here is one of the CAGED shapes for C Major:

Attached Image

Our first mode is the Ionian, which is the Major scale itself, lets ignore that for now, no explanations should be necessary. Instead, lets look at the Dorian mode. The Dorian mode is mode 2, so we generate the unique formula for Dorian by moving up a degree to D, and playing the notes out of the C Major scale, which would be D,E,F,G,A,B,C,D - it would look like this:

Attached Image

Since we started on D, we would call this "D Dorian", and you'll notice that although we are using the scale of C Major to select our notes, we have ended up with a scale with a root note of D, which you should take into account when writing songs around this mode.

If you want to turn this around and for instance find the notes in a specific key such as "C Dorian" you need to work backwards. What scale has the note C as its second degree? The answer is Bb, here:

Attached Image

So to figure out a C Dorian scale you would look at the notes in the key of Bb, which are Bb,C,D,Eb,F,G,A,Bb. Applying our rule and starting on the second degree ( C ) we get our C Dorian scale as C,D,Eb,F,G,A,Bb,C

Attached Image

When doing it this way around, you must also take account of the fact that different modes have different characteristic chords that fit with them. So for instance, Dorian mode has a Minor 7th feel to it - if you move from C Major to C Dorian, you are also moving from Major to Minor. Modes are characterised ad Major or Minor based on the interval between the 1st and 3rd notes. Not surprisingly, if the interval is a minor 3rd, the mode is characterised as minor, if its a major 3rd, it is characterised as major.

So you see we can work it both ways, going from a scale to a mode, or from a mode to a scale, and of course with practice you won't need to figure the notes out at all, you will just think "Dorian" and your fingers will play it - but that's a LOT of practice by the way!

You can use the same principle above to figure out the notes for any of the modes listed. Its also important to point out that for every mode, we are using the notes out of a major scale, just with a displaced root note, so learning modes is simply a case of re-using the major scale shapes you already know, and altering where you place the root note of that scale in the pattern. This means that you from the CAGED system you have 5 options for playing each of the modes.

Again, What exactly is a Mode?

So when all is said and done, is a Mode a specific pattern of notes, or just a scale played up a few notes?

People disagree on this - my answer to that question is that they are both. The essence of what a mode is, is the Tone/Semi-tone formula you use to construct it - Dorian is Dorian no matter what key it is played in, its the relationship of the notes that counts. But the selection and structuring of modes is done by an orderly progression through the scale you are generating the modes from. You'll notice that we have picked only 7 of the possible combinations of tones and semi-tones - others are possible, but that moves us into the realms of new scales. Modes of scales are strictly generated in the way I have described using movement through the degrees of the scale to generate the formulae for each.

Is That All There is to Modes?

Well we have really just scratched the surface of modes here, but by the time we have covered all of the modes listed above in more detail you will have learnt pretty much everything that most people mean when they talk about modes.

To be accurate, what we have discussed here are the Major Modes, meaning the modes generated from a Major scale. It is actually possible to generate modes from any scale at all though. So for instance, there are modes of the Pentatonic scale, Harmonic Minor scale, Melodic Minor scale and so on. Notice I didn't mention the Natural Minor scale here - although we use it a lot and call it a scale, a more accurate way of looking at the natural minor scale is as a mode of the Major scale (the Aeolian).

If you want to look at other modes (and there are some pretty obscure ones!) I suggest you buy a reference book such as The Guitar Grimoire: A compendium of Formulas for Guitar Scales and Modes. The techniques for mode construction remain the same no matter what scale you use, but sometimes its easier to look them up than to figure them out yourself.

That's it for this lesson. In the following lessons we are going to take a tour through the modes, look at example scales and discus chord voicings.

If you have any questions you know where I am!

Once again, thanks to Tank for proofreading!

This post has been edited by Andrew Cockburn: Jan 2 2008, 03:07 PM


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Nighthawk1
post Jul 30 2008, 05:19 PM
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Hey guys I please need help with that topic because I am still stuck at one point which concerns generating the modes.
I understood the one direction but not the other. Play the D-Mixolydian Scale !
Ok, for that I have to ask myself which scale has D as it's fifth degree - if I find this out I know that I have to play this scale just beginning from the 5th note right?
And here I am stuck...if I have D how do I get the Major Scale then....on which scale do I have to count backwards ? Sure on the D mixolydian scale but I don't know what the D mixolydianScale is yet at this moment and the whole reason of counting back was to find that out in the first place...Do you get me? I am confused...please help unsure.gif
Or do I really have to learn the intervals of the modes by heart? I thought I didn't have to do that because of this detour of "what scale has D as is 5th degree" question.
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kjutte
post Jul 30 2008, 05:29 PM
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QUOTE (Nighthawk @ Jul 30 2008, 06:19 PM) *
Hey guys I please need help with that topic because I am still stuck at one point which concerns generating the modes.
I understood the one direction but not the other. Play the D-Mixolydian Scale !
Ok, for that I have to ask myself which scale has D as it's fifth degree - if I find this out I know that I have to play this scale just beginning from the 5th note right?
And here I am stuck...if I have D how do I get the Major Scale then....on which scale do I have to count backwards ? Sure on the D mixolydian scale but I don't know what the D mixolydianScale is yet at this moment and the whole reason of counting back was to find that out in the first place...Do you get me? I am confused...please help unsure.gif
Or do I really have to learn the intervals of the modes by heart? I thought I didn't have to do that because of this detour of "what scale has D as is 5th degree" question.


Well, the easiest way to start off with is to learn all the 7 boxes of the majorscale. then you'll also know that mixo is equal to the major pattern, but has a flat7th. That's why it's dominant, because of the major 3rd and minor 7th.

ANYWAY, yes, it's another startingpoint.
In D Mixo you'll start off in the 5th degree of the majorscale. HOWEVER, since it's in mixo, this will actually be the first degree.
That means that the chord progression also changes.

SO, to play in true mixo, you'd do like this for example.

C7 Dmin Edim Fmaj Gmin Amin Bbmaj C7.
You see, the progression changes.

In Ionian the progression would be maj, min min maj maj min dim, however in mixo, you see it's maj (or dominant if you add a seventh) min dim maj min min maj.

Hopefully this makes sense.

Edit:
Unless you know all the notes of the neck, and the scale you're playing by heart, it's quite essential that you already know the 7 patterns of the majorscale. If you don't, then learn them first.

Re edit: After reading your post again I see you're definitely not ready for modes. I would strongly recommend you to learn the majorscale before you start with this. when you learn the 7 notes of the scale, and its 7 chords (read chords for scales by andrew), then you're ready.

This post has been edited by kjutte: Jul 30 2008, 05:38 PM
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Nighthawk1
post Jul 30 2008, 05:49 PM
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QUOTE (kjutte @ Jul 30 2008, 06:29 PM) *
Well, the easiest way to start off with is to learn all the 7 boxes of the majorscale. then you'll also know that mixo is equal to the major pattern, but has a flat7th. That's why it's dominant, because of the major 3rd and minor 7th.

ANYWAY, yes, it's another startingpoint.
In D Mixo you'll start off in the 5th degree of the majorscale. HOWEVER, since it's in mixo, this will actually be the first degree.
That means that the chord progression also changes.

SO, to play in true mixo, you'd do like this for example.

C7 Dmin Edim Fmaj Gmin Amin Bbmaj C7.
You see, the progression changes.

In Ionian the progression would be maj, min min maj maj min dim, however in mixo, you see it's maj (or dominant if you add a seventh) min dim maj min min maj.

Hopefully this makes sense.

Edit:
Unless you know all the notes of the neck, and the scale you're playing by heart, it's quite essential that you already know the 7 patterns of the majorscale. If you don't, then learn them first.

Re edit: After reading your post again I see you're definitely not ready for modes. I would strongly recommend you to learn the majorscale before you start with this. when you learn the 7 notes of the scale, and its 7 chords (read chords for scales by andrew), then you're ready.

Thanks for the answer pal...well actually I know the major scale very well and I understand it's chords how they and major scales are constructed and stuff...the chords for scale lesson I understood 100% that's also the reason why I understood your argumentation of the progresssion you mentioned...so you are not right on this one...
So you would say if I want to play d mixolydian I just play normal d major but keep in mind that I have to play the flattened 7th right?Then I have the Mixolydian mode in D...this is another approach than the counting back thing in Andrews lesson I am still not so sure about

This post has been edited by Nighthawk: Jul 30 2008, 05:52 PM
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kjutte
post Jul 30 2008, 06:12 PM
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QUOTE (Nighthawk @ Jul 30 2008, 06:49 PM) *
Thanks for the answer pal...well actually I know the major scale very well and I understand it's chords how they and major scales are constructed and stuff...the chords for scale lesson I understood 100% that's also the reason why I understood your argumentation of the progresssion you mentioned...so you are not right on this one...
So you would say if I want to play d mixolydian I just play normal d major but keep in mind that I have to play the flattened 7th right?Then I have the Mixolydian mode in D...this is another approach than the counting back thing in Andrews lesson I am still not so sure about


Oh, when you talked about counting backwards etc I thought you didn't know anything about scales tongue.gif

Ok, well you see, that flat 7th will also result in a change of the chord progression.
You will play the ordinary majorscale, but START at the 5th degree of it. This is because the fith degree has a flat 7.

When you start there, you make that degree your first degree, also called modulating.
When you start off at the mixolydian degree, you will have a different chord progression.

So anyway, yes, you just start off with your mixolydian pattern instead of Ionian, or aeolian, or whatever.

Meaning that your chord pattern will result in Maj min dim maj min min maj, OR mixo degree, aeolian, locrian, ionian, dorian phrygian and lydian.
These are just the patterns, don't mind the name.

Because of the flat 7, that's the chord's characteristic. Also, a flat 7 means the lydian degree. Therefore a D7 and Cmaj7 will work really well.

Example of progression for mixolydian:

D7, Cmaj7, Dmaj, cmaj? whatever you wish smile.gif

Edit:
again I emphasize that you're just starting off with the 5th box in the majorscale. This is the Domiant or fith degree.
Am I repetitive? lol.

This post has been edited by kjutte: Jul 30 2008, 06:14 PM
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Nighthawk1
post Jul 30 2008, 07:00 PM
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QUOTE (kjutte @ Jul 30 2008, 07:12 PM) *
Oh, when you talked about counting backwards etc I thought you didn't know anything about scales tongue.gif

Ok, well you see, that flat 7th will also result in a change of the chord progression.
You will play the ordinary majorscale, but START at the 5th degree of it. This is because the fith degree has a flat 7.

When you start there, you make that degree your first degree, also called modulating.
When you start off at the mixolydian degree, you will have a different chord progression.

So anyway, yes, you just start off with your mixolydian pattern instead of Ionian, or aeolian, or whatever.

Meaning that your chord pattern will result in Maj min dim maj min min maj, OR mixo degree, aeolian, locrian, ionian, dorian phrygian and lydian.
These are just the patterns, don't mind the name.

Because of the flat 7, that's the chord's characteristic. Also, a flat 7 means the lydian degree. Therefore a D7 and Cmaj7 will work really well.

Example of progression for mixolydian:

D7, Cmaj7, Dmaj, cmaj? whatever you wish smile.gif

Edit:
again I emphasize that you're just starting off with the 5th box in the majorscale. This is the Domiant or fith degree.
Am I repetitive? lol.

Thanks lot man this way of thinking about how to generate the modes really helps me...Modes are really fascinating when you finally got the hang of it...suddenly the same tones of a c major scale you have been using for ages have an Irish feeling just because you play them in a different context with different progessions namely D-Dorian . Amazing...
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kjutte
post Jul 30 2008, 07:03 PM
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QUOTE (Nighthawk @ Jul 30 2008, 08:00 PM) *
Thanks lot man this way of thinking about how to generate the modes really helps me...Modes are really fascinating when you finally got the hang of it...suddenly the same tones of a c major scale you have been using for ages have an Irish feeling just because you play them in a different context with different progessions namely D-Dorian . Amazing...


Anytime, man! If you want more help, add me on msn: kjetil4455@hotmail.com
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Nighthawk1
post Jul 30 2008, 07:08 PM
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QUOTE (kjutte @ Jul 30 2008, 08:03 PM) *
Anytime, man! If you want more help, add me on msn: kjetil4455@hotmail.com

I have no MSN, unfortunately..I have ICQ and skype and a 3rd messenger would be overdone smile.gif I've added you here at GMC though !

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Andrew Cockburn
post Jul 30 2008, 07:28 PM
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QUOTE (Nighthawk @ Jul 30 2008, 02:08 PM) *
I have no MSN, unfortunately..I have ICQ and skype and a 3rd messenger would be overdone smile.gif I've added you here at GMC though !


Regarding the original question ...

Well, you could just know that D is the 5th degree of the G major scale, or you could work backwards using the major formula as follows:

Formula is:

2 2 1 2 2 2 1

we know:

_2_2_1_2_2_2_1
? ? ? ? D


So, to get the root we work backwards from the D and subtract 2 semitones, then 1, then 2, and 2.

That gives us:

D C B A G

Hence it is G major smile.gif

Now, I thought the same way as you about this when I first learnt about modes, but as DR has said, its not really an important point - its far more useful to learn the fingering for D mixolydian than to try and work out that it is a mode of G major - that piece of information is certainly useful but doesn't immediately help you play it.


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kjutte
post Jul 30 2008, 07:31 PM
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QUOTE (Andrew Cockburn @ Jul 30 2008, 08:28 PM) *
Regarding the original question ...

Well, you could just know that D is the 5th degree of the G major scale, or you could work backwards using the major formula as follows:

Formula is:

2 2 1 2 2 2 1

we know:

_2_2_1_2_2_2_1
? ? ? ? D


So, to get the root we work backwards from the D and subtract 2 semitones, then 1, then 2, and 2.

That gives us:

D C B A G

Hence it is G major smile.gif

Now, I thought the same way as you about this when I first learnt about modes, but as DR has said, its not really an important point - its far more useful to learn the fingering for D mixolydian than to try and work out that it is a mode of G major - that piece of information is certainly useful but doesn't immediately help you play it.


I said degree of major just to illustrate, and make it less alien.
Many mistake it and think it's a whole different scale to learn, but in fact you're just starting on another pattern.

Agreedz0r Andrew?

Edit: And I don't really get your meaning of this, because if you know the fingering of major (the 7 boxes) you also know the fingering of all the modes...

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Andrew Cockburn
post Jul 30 2008, 07:40 PM
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QUOTE (kjutte @ Jul 30 2008, 02:31 PM) *
I said degree of major just to illustrate, and make it less alien.
Many mistake it and think it's a whole different scale to learn, but in fact you're just starting on another pattern.

Agreedz0r Andrew?

Edit: And I don't really get your meaning of this, because if you know the fingering of major (the 7 boxes) you also know the fingering of all the modes...


Don't mistake boxes for modes - rather think of it as a freakish coincidence that they are the same, so you keep the concepts separate ...

The best way to think of it IS as a different scale, but one that is related to the major scale, as a result of which, the boxes are reused.


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kjutte
post Jul 30 2008, 07:46 PM
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QUOTE (Andrew Cockburn @ Jul 30 2008, 08:40 PM) *
Don't mistake boxes for modes - rather think of it as a freakish coincidence that they are the same, so you keep the concepts separate ...

The best way to think of it IS as a different scale, but one that is related to the major scale, as a result of which, the boxes are reused.


I know, the Ionians, Dorians etc had their own way of playing The scale...
They are as you say, equal in fingerings. However I agree with you, becuase of the flats and sharps are their characteristic, and if you know of them, it will be easier to express the mode.
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Posts in this topic
- Andrew Cockburn   Modes 101   Apr 6 2007, 10:43 PM
- - radarlove1984   Great lesson. I knew a little about modes already,...   Apr 7 2007, 02:47 AM
|- - Andrew Cockburn   QUOTE (radarlove1984 @ Apr 6 2007, 09:47 ...   Apr 7 2007, 03:43 PM
|- - Tank   QUOTE (Andrew Cockburn @ Apr 7 2007, 03:4...   Apr 8 2007, 10:40 AM
|- - Andrew Cockburn   QUOTE (Tank @ Apr 8 2007, 05:40 AM) Hiya ...   Apr 8 2007, 03:06 PM
- - crabman   Thanks Andrew. Good stuff, keep it coming   Apr 10 2007, 08:13 AM
- - Anastasio123   Wow its amazing how easy modes really are to under...   Apr 15 2007, 04:12 AM
- - Melinda   awsome Andrew, this makes sense   Apr 15 2007, 06:38 PM
- - Andrew Cockburn   Thanks all of you - glad you find it helpful, I...   Apr 15 2007, 09:32 PM
- - Pavel   Ok i just found some time to sit and read this - t...   May 11 2007, 02:26 PM
|- - Andrew Cockburn   QUOTE (Pavel @ May 11 2007, 09:26 AM) Ok ...   May 11 2007, 02:33 PM
- - Rockwouldbe   hey andrew do you think you can add all the chor...   May 11 2007, 03:08 PM
|- - Andrew Cockburn   QUOTE (Rockwouldbe @ May 11 2007, 10:08 A...   May 11 2007, 04:17 PM
|- - Bitey   So Semi tones or S are like A# or Bb and T are who...   May 15 2007, 05:10 PM
|- - Kaneda   QUOTE (Bitey @ May 15 2007, 06:10 PM) So ...   May 15 2007, 07:45 PM
- - sillyman   I understand the theory behind the modes but i don...   May 27 2007, 09:37 PM
- - Pavel   To be honest - that's a very good question Sil...   May 27 2007, 10:13 PM
|- - Andrew Cockburn   QUOTE (Pavel @ May 27 2007, 05:13 PM) To ...   May 27 2007, 10:57 PM
- - Pavel   oh ok i got it now! So it's actually like ...   May 27 2007, 11:14 PM
|- - Andrew Cockburn   QUOTE (Pavel @ May 27 2007, 06:14 PM) oh ...   May 28 2007, 12:34 AM
|- - kjutte   I was thinking about this last night. I realized I...   Jul 18 2007, 05:25 PM
- - sillyman   ah my toroise brain has finally caught up thanks a...   Jun 7 2007, 08:48 PM
|- - Andrew Cockburn   QUOTE (sillyman @ Jun 7 2007, 03:48 PM) a...   Jun 7 2007, 09:12 PM
- - DeepRoots   Hey Andrew just a quick one- would it be practical...   Jun 25 2007, 10:46 PM
|- - Andrew Cockburn   QUOTE (DeepRoots @ Jun 25 2007, 05:46 PM)...   Jun 25 2007, 11:19 PM
- - Ryan   Wow, I understand now. I have seen the light . I l...   Jun 29 2007, 04:33 AM
|- - Andrew Cockburn   QUOTE (Ryan @ Jun 28 2007, 11:33 PM) Wow,...   Jun 29 2007, 01:18 PM
- - Blairkelley   It appears that in the first lesson, we were to re...   Feb 11 2008, 05:39 PM
|- - Andrew Cockburn   QUOTE (Blairkelley @ Feb 11 2008, 11:39 A...   Feb 11 2008, 06:13 PM
|- - Blairkelley   QUOTE (Andrew Cockburn @ Feb 11 2008, 01...   Feb 11 2008, 08:12 PM
- - FretDancer69   Great lesson Andrew. I didnt understsand much the ...   Feb 12 2008, 05:24 AM
|- - Andrew Cockburn   Harmonic minor is not mode of the major scale - i...   Feb 12 2008, 11:28 PM
|- - FretDancer69   QUOTE (Andrew Cockburn @ Feb 12 2008, 04...   Feb 13 2008, 12:45 AM
|- - eddiecat   These lessons are awesome Andrew! And I would ...   Feb 13 2008, 07:08 AM
|- - Andrew Cockburn   Thanks Eddie, its great that you like my lessons, ...   Feb 14 2008, 12:59 AM
- - Qube   Thanks, finally I understand this!   Jun 16 2008, 02:46 PM
|||- - DeepRoots   QUOTE (Andrew Cockburn @ Jul 30 2008, 07...   Jul 30 2008, 07:42 PM
||||- - Andrew Cockburn   QUOTE (DeepRoots @ Jul 30 2008, 02:42 PM)...   Jul 30 2008, 07:49 PM
||- - Nighthawk   QUOTE (kjutte @ Jul 30 2008, 08:31 PM) I ...   Jul 30 2008, 07:41 PM
||- - kjutte   QUOTE (Nighthawk @ Jul 30 2008, 08:41 PM)...   Jul 30 2008, 08:00 PM
||- - Andrew Cockburn   QUOTE (kjutte @ Jul 30 2008, 03:00 PM) By...   Jul 30 2008, 08:35 PM
||- - kjutte   QUOTE (Andrew Cockburn @ Jul 30 2008, 09...   Jul 30 2008, 08:42 PM
|- - Nighthawk   QUOTE (Andrew Cockburn @ Jul 30 2008, 08...   Jul 30 2008, 07:40 PM
- - DeepRoots   I reccomend you learn the intervals of each mode- ...   Jul 30 2008, 05:29 PM


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