We apply a discrete quantum walk from a quantum particle on a discrete quantum spacetime from loop quantum gravity and show that the related entanglement entropy drives an entropic force. We apply these concepts in a model where walker positions are topologically encoded on a spin network. Then, we discuss the role of the golden ratio in fundamental physics by addressing charge and length quantization and by analyzing the ratios of fundamental constants−the limits of nature. The limit of minimal length and volume arising in quantum gravity theory indicates an underlying principle that we develop herein.

]]>Since antiquity, the packing of convex shapes has been of great interest to many scientists and mathematicians. Recently, particular interest has been given to packings of three-dimensional tetrahedra. Dense packings of both crystalline and semi-quasicrystalline have been reported. It is interesting that a semi-quasicrystalline packing of tetrahedra can emerge naturally within a thermodynamic simulation approach. However, this packing is not perfectly quasicrystalline and the packing density, while dense, is not maximal. Here we suggest that a “golden rotation” between tetrahedral facial junctions can arrange tetrahedra into a perfect quasicrystalline packing. Using this golden rotation, tetrahedra can be organized into “triangular”, “pentagonal”, and “spherical” locally dense aggregates. Additionally, the aperiodic Boerdijk-Coxeter helix (tetrahelix) is transformed into a structure of 3-or 5-fold periodicity—depending on the relative chiralities of the helix and rotation—herein referred to as the “philix”. Further, using this same rotation, we build (1) a shell structure which resembles a Penrose tiling upon projection into two dimensions, and (2) a “tetragrid” structure assembled of golden rhombohedral unit cells. Our results indicate that this rotation is closely associated with Fuller’s “jitterbug transformation” and that the total number of face-plane classes (defined below) is significantly reduced in comparison with general tetrahedral aggregations, suggesting a quasicrystalline packing of tetrahedra which is both dynamic and dense. The golden rotation that we report presents a novel tool for arranging tetrahedra into perfect quasicrystalline, dense packings.

]]>A first principles theory of everything has yet to be achieved. An E8 derived code of quantized spacetime could meet the following suggested requirements:

(1) First principles explanation of time dilation, inertia, the magnitude of the Planck constant and the speed of light.

(2) First principles explanation of conservation laws and gauge transformation symmetry.

(3) Must be fundamentally relativistic with nothing that is invariant being absolute.

(4) Pursuant to the deduction that reality is fundamentally information-theoretic, all information must be generated by observation/measurement at the simplest Planck scale of the code/language.

(5) Must be non-deterministic.

(6) Must be computationally efficient.

(7) Must be a code describing “jagged” (quantized) waveform – a waveform language.

(8) Must have a first principles explanation for preferred chirality in nature.

This paper shows that when projecting an edge-transitive N-dimensional polytope onto an M-dimensional subspace of RN, the sums of the squares of the original and projected edges are in the ratio N/M.

]]>Inspired by the Sum of the Squares law obtained in the paper titled “The Sum of Squares Law“ by J. Kovacs, F. Fang, G. Sadler and K. Irwin, we derive the law of the sums of the squares of the areas, volumes and hyper-volumes associated with the faces, cells and hyper-cells of regular polytopes in diverse dimensions after using Clifford algebraic methods.

]]>This paper presents the construction of a dense, quasicrystalline packing of regular tetrahedra with icosahedral symmetry. This quasicrystalline packing was achieved through two independent approaches. The first approach originates in the Elser- Sloane 4D quasicrystal – a 3D slice of the quasicrystal contains a few types of prototiles. An initial structure is obtained by decorating these prototiles with tetrahedra. This initial structure is then modified using the Elser- Sloane quasicrystal itself as a guide. The second approach proceeds by decorating the prolate and oblate rhombohedra in a 3-dimensional Ammann tiling. The resulting quasicrystal has a packing density of 59.783%. We also show a variant of the quasicrystal that has just 10 plane classes (compared with the 190 of the original), defined as the total number of distinct orientations of the planes in which the faces of the tetrahedra are contained. The small number of plane classes was achieved by a certain “golden rotation” of the tetrahedra.

]]>Geometric methods for constructing exact solutions of motion equations with first order α′ corrections to the heterotic supergravity action implying a non-trivial Yang-Mills sector and six dimensional, 6-d, almost-Kähler internal spaces are studied. In 10-d spacetimes, general parameterizations for generic off-diagonal metrics, nonlinear and linear connections and matter sources, when the equations of motion decouple in very general forms are considered. This allows us to construct a variety of exact solutions when the coefficients of fundamental geometric/physical objects depend on all higher dimensional spacetime coordinates via corresponding classes of generating and integration functions, generalized effective sources and integration constants. Such generalized solutions are determined by generic off-diagonal metrics and nonlinear and/or linear connections. In particular, as configurations which are warped/compactified to lower dimensions and for Levi-Civita connections. The corresponding metrics can have (non) Killing and/or Lie algebra symmetries and/or describe (1+2)-d and/or (1+3)-d domain wall configurations, with possible warping nearly almost-Kähler manifolds, with gravitational and gauge instantons for nonlinear vacuum configurations and effective polarizations of cosmological and interaction constants encoding string gravity effects. A series of examples of exact solutions describing generic off-diagonal supergravity modifications to black hole/ ellipsoid and solitonic configurations are provided and analyzed. We prove that it is possible to reproduce the Kerr and other type black solutions in general relativity (with certain types of string corrections) in 4D and to generalize the solutions to non-vacuum configurations in (super) gravity/string theories.

]]>Inspired by the Hilbert-Polya proposal to prove the Riemann Hypothesis we have studied the Schroedinger QM equation involving a highly non-trivial potential, and whose self-adjoint Hamiltonian operator has for its energy spectrum one which approaches the imaginary parts of the zeta zeroes only in the *asymptotic* (very large *N*) region. The ordinates λn are the positive imaginary parts of the nontrivial zeta zeros in the critical line : *sn = 1/2 + iλn* . The latter results are consistent with the validity of the Bohr-Sommerfeld semi-classical quantization condition. It is shown how one may modify the parameters which define the potential, and fine tune its values, such that the energy spectrum of the (modified) Hamiltonian matches not only the first two zeroes but the other consecutive zeroes. The highly non-trivial functional form of the potential is found via the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization formula using the full-fledged Riemann-von Mangoldt counting formula (without any truncations) for the number *N (E)* of zeroes in the critical strip with imaginary part greater than *0* and less than or equal to *E*.

The construction of an icosahedral quasicrystal and a quasicrystalline spin network are obtained by spacing the parallel planes in an icosagrid with the Fibonacci sequence. This quasicrystal can also be thought of as a golden composition of five sets of Fibonacci tetragrids. We found that this quasicrystal embeds the quasicrystals that are golden compositions of the three-dimensional tetrahedral cross-sections of the Elser-Sloane quasicrystal, which is a four-dimensional cut-and-project of the E8 lattice. These compound quasicrystals are subsets of the quasicrystalline spin network, and the former can be enriched to form the latter. This creates a mapping between the quasicrystalline spin network and the E8 lattice.

]]>The goal of this work on mathematical cosmology and geometric methods in modified gravity theories, MGTs, is to investigate Starobinsky-like inflation scenarios determined by gravitational and scalar field configurations mimicking quasicrystal (QC) like structures. Such spacetime aperiodic QCs are different from those discovered and studied in solid state physics but described by similar geometric methods. We prove that an inhomogeneous and locally anisotropic gravitational and matter field effective QC mixed continuous and discrete “aether” can be modeled by exact cosmological solutions in MGTs and Einstein gravity. The coefficients of corresponding generic off-diagonal metrics and generalized connections depend (in general) on all spacetime coordinates via generating and integration functions and certain smooth and discrete parameters. Imposing additional nonholonomic constraints, prescribing symmetries for generating functions and solving the boundary conditions for integration functions and constants, we can model various nontrivial torsion QC structures or extract cosmological Levi–Civita configurations with diagonal metrics reproducing de Sitter (inflationary) like and other types homogeneous inflation and acceleration phases. Finally, we speculate how various dark energy and dark matter effects can be modeled by off-diagonal interactions and deformations of a nontrivial QC like gravitational vacuum structure and analogous scalar matter fields.

]]>Quasicrystals (QCs) are a novel form of matter which are neither crystalline nor amorphous. Among many surprising properties of QCs is their high catalytic activity. We propose a mechanism explaining this peculiarity based on unusual dynamics of atoms at special sites in QCs, namely, localized anharmonic vibrations (LAVs) and phasons. In the former case, one deals with a large amplitude (~ fractions of an angstrom) time-periodic oscillations of a small group of atoms around their stable positions in the lattice, known also as discrete breathers, which can be excited in regular crystals as well as in QCs. On the other hand, phasons are a specific property of QCs, which are represented by very large amplitude (~angstrom) oscillations of atoms between two quasi-stable positions determined by the geometry of a QC. Large amplitude atomic motion in LAVs and phasons results in time-periodic driving of adjacent potential wells occupied by hydrogen ions (protons or deuterons) in case of hydrogenated QCs. This driving may result in the increase of amplitude and energy of zero-point vibrations (ZPV). Based on that, we demonstrate a drastic increase of the D-D or D-H fusion rate with increasing number of modulation periods evaluated in the framework of Schwinger model, which takes into account suppression of the Coulomb barrier due to lattice vibrations. In this context, we present numerical solution of Schrodinger equation for a particle in a non-stationary double well potential, which is driven time-periodically imitating the action of a LAV or phason. We show that the rate of tunneling of the particle through the potential barrier separating the wells is enhanced drastically by the driving, and it increases strongly with increasing amplitude of the driving. These results support the concept of nuclear catalysis in QCs that can take place at special sites provided by their inherent topology.

]]>The goal of this work is to elaborate on new geometric methods of constructing exact and parametric quasiperiodic solutions for anamorphic cosmology models in modified gravity theories, MGTs, and general relativity, GR. There exist previously studied generic off-diagonal and diagonalizable cosmological metrics encoding gravitational and matter fields with quasicrystal like structures, QC, and holonomy corrections from loop quantum gravity, LQG. We apply the anholonomic frame deformation method, AFDM, in order to decouple the (modified) gravitational and matter field equations in general form. This allows us to find integral varieties of cosmological solutions determined by generating functions, effective sources, integration functions and constants. The coefficients of metrics and connections for such cosmological configurations depend, in general, on all spacetime coordinates and can be chosen to generate observable (quasi)-periodic/ aperiodic/ fractal / stochastic / (super) cluster / filament / polymer like (continuous, stochastic, fractal and/or discrete structures) in MGTs and/or GR. In this work, we study new classes of solutions for anamorphic cosmology with LQG holonomy corrections. Such solutions are characterized by nonlinear symmetries of generating functions for generic off-diagonal cosmological metrics and generalized connections, with possible nonholonomic constraints to Levi-Civita configurations and diagonalizable metrics depending only on a time like coordinate. We argue that anamorphic quasiperiodic cosmological models integrate the concept of quantum discrete spacetime, with certain gravitational QC-like vacuum and nonvacuum structures. And, that of a contracting universe that homogenizes, isotropizes and flattens without introducing initial conditions or multiverse problems.

]]>We present the emergence of a root system in six dimensions from the tetrahedra of an icosahedral core known as the 20-group (20G) within the framework of Clifford’s geometric algebra. Consequently, we establish a connection between a three-dimensional icosahedral seed, a six-dimensional (6D) Dirichlet quantized host and a higher dimensional lattice structure. The 20G, owing to its icosahedral symmetry, bears the signature of a 6D lattice that manifests in the Dirichlet integer representation. We present an interpretation whereby the three-dimensional 20G can be regarded as the core substratum from which the higher dimensional lattices emerge. This emergent geometry is based on an induction principle supported by the Clifford multi-vector formalism of three-dimensional (3D) Euclidean space. This lays a geometric framework for understanding several physics theories related to SU(5), E6, E8 Lie algebras and their composition with the algebra associated with the even unimodular lattice in R3,1. The construction presented here is inspired by Penrose’s three world mode.

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